A Summary/Tabular Listing of the Various Interpretations of Q 4.157 By Muslim Exegetes over the Centuries

[Referenced from Do Muslims have to believe that Jesus was NOT Crucified? | Taken mostly from The Crucifixion and the Qur'an, by Todd Lawson]
Name Died Theology Theory Jesus attitude Victim Relationship Reason for Selection Miracle? How Notes Time
al-Kalbi 146/763
Natyanus Friend of boasting Jews Friend of boasting Jews probably likeness cast upon someone Claims to be Abbas Pre-Tabari
Mujahid B. Jabr AL-MAKKI 104/722 Meccan? Substitution


Wahb Ibn Munabbih (v1) 114/732 Yemeni Substitution

a willing disciple of Jesus volunteered yes likeness on EVERYONE endorsed by Al-Tabari Pre-Tabari
Wahb Ibn Munabbih (v2, long one) 114/732 Yemeni Substitution Jesus seeks to avoid C (Judas) the traitor UNK yes likeness on Judas Acts of John Pre-Tabari
Qatada Ibn Di'ama (v1) 117/735
Substitution Jesus seeks to avoid C
a willing disciple of Jesus volunteered yes likeness cast upon someone
Qatada Ibn Di'ama (v2) 117/735
Substitution Jesus seeks to avoid C
a willing disciple of Jesus volunteered

Paradise promised Pre-Tabari
Al-Qasim Ibn Abi Bazza 124/742

same as Mujahid/Qatada Pre-Tabari
Isma'il Ibn Abd Al-Rahman Al-Suddi 127/744

same as Qatada, but 19 disciples Pre-Tabari
Ja'far Ibn Muhammad Al-Sadiq 148/750 Shiite Iman (6th) Dual-spheres

not quoted by Tabari; killing accepted Pre-Tabari
Abd Al-Malik B. Abd Al-Aziz, Ibn Jurayj 149/766

same as Mujahid/Qatada Pre-Tabari
Muqatil b. Sulayman Al-Balkhi 150/767
Guard placed over Jesus by the Jews (Yahudha, but not the traitor)

Jews unsure of who they killed Pre-Tabari
Muhammad Ibn Ishaq 150/767
Substitution Jesus seeks to avoid C Serjes a willing disciple of Jesus volunteered yes likeness cast upon someone King of Jews ordered the killing; 13 disciples (one not recognized by Christians); some Christians believe it was Judas who was killed? Pre-Tabari
Yahya Ibn Ziyad Al-Farra 207/822 (grammarian) (passage not about Jesus being killed; but knowledge being not being killed)

based on grammar! Pre-Tabari
Abu Muhammad Abd b. Muslim B. Qutayba Al-Dinawari 276/889
Sovereignty; and knowledge

deals with difficult passages in Q; like Acts--not Jewish initiative, they were not certain about what they had done Pre-Tabari
Al-Tabari 310/923

one of his companions, who remained in the house after the other disciples scattered
yes changed into His likeness his actual position is unclear, even though there is a uniformity in the eleven traditions he cites; Jesus HAD talked about his death that night! Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Al-Zajjaj 310/923 (grammarian) (unsure: cites both substitution and knowledge views as legit)

a willing disciple of Jesus volunteered

promised the Garden Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Al-Maturidi 320/933
(raises doubt about the substitution story; notes the knowledge view as being important)
a Jew who tried to arrest Jesus enemy punishment yes likeness cast upon someone no isnads given; objects to Wahb's versions as being 'unattested' Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Abu Hatim Al-Razi 322/933 Isma'ili Dual-spheres

says that Gospels and Q agree on this Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
al-Nasafi (same as al-Razi) Isma'ili Dual-spheres

(known through debate with Al-Razi) Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Ja'far Ibn Mansur Al-Yaman 349/960 Isma'ili UNK, but full crucifixion

big on symbolism of Cross; includes broader Christological content--considered heretical in OXY Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Al-Sijistani 360/971 Isma'ili Dual-spheres

Cross revealed Jesus' prophethood Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Brethren of Purity (Ikhwan al-Safa) Tenth Century Isma'ili Dual-spheres

close to gospel accounts Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Abd Al-Jabbar 416/1025 Mu'tazili Substitution (none) innocent Jew (none) Judas slandered him no Judas deliberately pointed to the wrong man, and he was assumed to be Jesus totally naturalistic Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Al-Tha 'Labi (1) 427/1035 Shi'a Substitution
a Jew pretending to be Jesus

no pretending
Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Al-Tha 'Labi (2) 427/1035 Shi'a Substitution

yes likeness cast upon someone
Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Al-Tusi 460/1067 Shi'a (12er) Substitution
Jews selected to kill him INSTEAD of Jesus (polemic) yes likeness on EVERYONE mixture of fraud/miracle; first Shi'I to endorse Sunni views on this Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Abu Al-Futuh al-Razi 525/1131 Persian Shi'a "figurative docetism"

Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Al-Tabrisi / Al-Tabarsi 548/1153 Shi'a (12er) [repeats al-Tusi/Wahb]

Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Al-Qushayri 465/1072 Ash'ari mystic Substitution offers it to a volunteer a disciple disciple volunteered yes likeness cast upon someone tries to justify Jesus accepting a substitute Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Al-Zamakhshari 538/1144 Mu'tazili rejects Substitution as unlikely (from text); but doesn’t offer alternative; might have said a Jew was killed in substitution

detailed grammatical analysis; it was the 'affair' of the cross that was made obscure to the Jews Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Al-Baydawi 685/1286 popularizer of al-Z Substitution
Jew named tatanus Jew(?)

Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Al-Razi 606/1209 Ash'arite critical of substitution

cannot allow image-transfer (dishonest); "God knows best what happened" --refering to conflicting stories Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Ruzbihan al-Baqli 606/1209 Sunni/Asharite Sufi Substitution

someone else UNLIKE Jesus in character (reason for killing him)?
yes likeness cast upon someone weird incarnational verbiage Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Ibn Kathir 774/1373 traditionalist Substitution avoidance disciple disciple volunteered UNK UNK no references to al-Z or al-Razi; serious villification of the Jews Classical & Medieval (923-1505)
Al-Suyuti 911/1505 traditionalist Substitution
disciple disciple 3 volunteered UNK UNK
Classical & Medieval (923-1505)

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